Dar Si Hmad for Development, Education and Culture is an independent nonprofit organization founded in 2010 promoting local culture and sustainable initiatives through education and the integration of scientific ingenuity in Southwest Morocco. We operate North Africa's largest fog harvesting project, providing villages with access to potable water. Our Water School and Girls' E-Learning Programs build capacity in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Through our Ethnographic Field School, researchers and students engage with local communities in Agadir, Sidi Ifni, and the rural Aït Baamrane region for meaningful cross-cultural exchange.

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Dar Si Hmad Highlights of June 2020


June 2020 marked a new busy start at Dar Si Hmad as all employees returned back to the office on the 10th, when the lockdown period was finally over. This return was unique in so many ways and even though we had not seen each other for almost 3 months, touch greetings were and are strictly banned since we are still under the health emergency state. Today, Dar Si Hmad is equipped with hand sanitizer, packages of medical bibs at the door of its office, and all of our spaces are organized in a way that respects the distancing sanitary measures.


Samira Arjdal, DSH new office manager sharing her first couscous meal with the team


This return was special also because we have a new member joining the Dar Si Hmad team. Her name is Samira Arjdal, and she is our new office manager.  Samira is an engineer from l’ENSA of Agadir and after starting her career in energy and environmental processes, she participated in the largest electric vehicle rally in the world Wave Trophy in Switzerland and organized RIVE Maroc, which is the 1st rally of electric vehicles in Morocco. Today, as the office manager of Dar Si Hmad, she is in charge of the internal administrative management, coordination, supervision and the monitoring of the projects.


Coming back to the office under these health circumstances forced us to think otherwise about our summer programs. We continue planning for future projects, both  in the field of development and education. Our agro-ecology training Afous Ghisiki will officially be underway by the end of September at Domaine Nzaha in Guelmim (stay tuned for the news). We are preparing a novel entrepreneurship training that responds to the economic and employment challenges caused by the Coronavirus locally. We invite you to actively engage with us on our social media platforms so you can be notified about the upcoming details of the project.
Finally, June 2020 was closed by the monthly green Friday Ljamae Azgzaw event, which was virtual this time also. For this session we organized a live call with the Meridian Expedition on Instagram. This initiative aims at the promotion of scientific research in the field of sustainable development,  and its members spoke at length about diverse sustainable and ecological projects happening in different parts of Morocco. The interview with them was very insightful and we are so excited to know that people all over this country believe and create in a green and responsible manner. 
July 2020 has already been filled with events, so keep reading our blogs to stay updated about Dar Si Hmad activities. 
  









Monday, June 29, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: Chapter 2 - Interational Policy Framework


The second chapter of the UN 2020 Water and Climate Change report dissects the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2015), Paris Agreement on climate change (2015), Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015), and several international water conventions. The report concludes that almost all of these frameworks do not address water management by name, even though water is an underlying connector in all frameworks.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a collection of 17 goals that aim to reshape global development in ways that allow us to “reach the future we want whilst leaving no one behind.” Water serves as an often unacknowledged, yet vital, connecting factor for achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs), particularly water being essential for basic human needs (SDGs 6, 5), but also for marine (SDG 14) and land (SDG 15) ecosystems, for producing food (SDG 2) and energy (SDG 7), supporting livelihoods (SDG 8) and industry (SDGs 9, 12), and providing sustainable and healthy environments to live in (SDGs 1, 3, 11).

SDG 13 recommends we “take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts,” is the SDG most explicitly concerned with climate change. Although it does not specify water-related issues, the goal has several water-related targets and has designated indicators such as strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related disasters (e.g. floods and extreme weather events). The fact that water-related issues are not called out by name is emblematic of what the report calls a “fundamental disconnection” between the SDGs themselves, as well as other global frameworks.

SDG 6 recommends we “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all,” and was reviewed in the 2018 July session of the High-Level Political Forum. Here, countries acknowledged that SDG 6, similarly to other SDGs, were being addressed in a siloed manner. This lack of connection is considered as the major reason for countries around the world not on track to meet the targets of SDG 6.


The Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement on climate change, a set of legal instruments referred to as protocols from the UNFCCC, is another relevant international policy framework. The Paris Agreements highly recommends to keep the global average temperature below 1.5ºC above pre-industrial levels in order to reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. It does this by having all parties to the Agreement determine, plan, and regularly report adaptation and mitigation measures, which are referred to as nationally determined contributions. These NDCs are to be reviewed every five years, although reporting the progress of NDCs is voluntary. Parties are also encouraged to adopt national action plans, which are medium- to long-term adaptation tactics that address and integrate the SDGs and 2030 agenda when appropriate. The Paris Agreement also recognizes the essential roles of non-state parties (including but not limited to local authorities, the private sector, academia, marginalized populations, and civil society organizations like Dar Si Hmad, play in reaching its goals.

The Paris Agreement is a landmark international policy framework concerning climate change but as recognized in the COP25 of 2019, achieving the goals of the Paris agreement have proven to be more difficult than anticipated. Additionally, Frank Bainimarama, Prime Minister of Fiji and President of COP23, said at the closing plenary session of COP24 that the world needs “five times more ambition, five times more action” in order to achieve the goals of the Agreement.

Water is not explicitly mentioned in the Agreement, but water is seen as an “essential component of nearly all the mitigation and adaptation strategies.” The UN report sees the exclusion of water from the Agreement as an opportunity for international water organizations to step up. International water organizations can include themselves in international efforts by supporting the nationally determined contributions of party countries. Additionally, water organizations can integrate their work and the issue of water into the operational phase of a country’s nationally determined contributions and national action plan.

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
Prior to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework), disaster risk reduction focused on disaster relief, instead of prevention. With the Sendai Framework, there is a shift to focus onto prevention and preparedness. It also acknowledges how prevention-work interacts with a number of drivers for disasters including climate change, inequality, demographic change, and more.

The goal of the Sendai Framework is to achieve “the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.” To reach this overarching goal, it sets up seven standard global targets and four priorities for action. Building on this model, member-states should provide publicly available strategies regarding their national and local disaster risk reduction. Although water is rarely explicitly mentioned in the Sendai Framework, floods and storms constitute nearly 90% of the most severe natural disasters in question.

International water conventions
The report also discusses several international water conventions such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Watercourses (Watercourses Convention) and the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Water Convention). These conventions provide a framework for addressing the impacts climate change has on water resources.

These provisions support adaptation measures and acknowledge climate change through the principles of equitable and reasonable use, ‘no significant harm’, and the precautionary principle. These principles are important in order to prevent the unfair use of international water courses, such as one country hoarding a water resource that naturally disperses water to other countries.

The equitable and reasonable utilization of water refers to article 5 of the Watercourses Convention, which states that states with bodies of water running through their land will use water resources in an “equitable and reasonable manner,” while also participating in “the use, development, and protection of an international watercourse in an equitable and reasonable manner.” This article acknowledges the right of all to use water resources and the shared duty to protect and develop water resources. Also from the Watercourses Convention, the ‘no significant harm’ rule requires states who utilize watercourses in their territories to prevent causing significant harm in other states. 

The precautionary principle in environmental regulations requires actions suspected to have environmentally harmful consequences should be controlled sooner rather than later. It is based on the adage ‘it is better to be safe than sorry’ and has gained recognition in the international community as a principle that should guide public policy.

Most international water conventions, however, do not explicitly mention climate change, but they do require member parties to “prevent, control and reduce transboundary impacts on water resources, including those related to adapting and mitigating climate change.”

Water as a connector
The report states that water acts as a connector to support the implementation of global agreements. After all, water is present in, connects, and touches all aspects of human society – economic, social, and environmental. The report states that strong political will and leadership will be necessary in order to highlight and mainstream the value of water in achieving the goals of global agreements. The report cautions that there are discrepancies when transforming global recommendations to concrete actions, hence strong leadership that acknowledges how water is not a stand-alone sector is an important and necessary ingredient in achieving the goals of all the aforementioned agreements.

Written by: Gari De Ramos, Dar Si Hmad former intern 





Friday, June 12, 2020

Dar Si Hmad Highlights of May 2020


Dar Si Hmad staff entered their third month under confinement in May 2020. This month, we were granted an extended weekend as Labor Day came on a Friday. Virtual work was then resumed the following week to carry on the developmental projects in Aït Baamrane, and to continue spreading our environmental values to the largest public possible.

As Ramadan was still underway in the beginning of May, we kept refreshing our social media platforms with daily ecological spiritualities. The quotes we shared in this regard were carefully chosen so as to incite our followers into connecting their spiritual awareness with the environmental realities all around us. The International Day for Biological Diversity on May 22nd  was especially a highlight for us. Moreover, and thanks to the efforts of our former intern Gari De Ramos, we could share more lessons from the UN 2020 Water and Climate Change Report that not only gave us the factual information about the climate impact in the world, but had more of our followers engage with the information, both the spiritual and the scientific.


On May 2020, we also unveiled our new environmental project to be run in partnership with Domaine Nzaha, a permaculture farm cooperative in the desert of Guelmim. We announced this news on our third session of our monthly program Ljamae Azgzaw. The latter, on May 30th,  was this time live from Instagram, and in it we talked to our followers about agroecology and its benefits on the environment and the positive socio-economic effects for the communities to have adopted this holistic way of agriculture. This is the core of our upcoming project to be launched once the health situation in the country improves. We do recognize and wholeheartedly thank the High Atlas Foundation for its financial support.


What really made the highlight of May 2020 despite our confinement, we all agree in the office is the several videos we received from our former interns, volunteers and researchers who, when they learnt we were updating our website, recorded their testimonies about their experiences in Dar Si Hmad. Their statements were a great motivation for us, and they will forever be appreciated. Please be on the lookout for them… their publication is coming up soon. 


Friday, June 5, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: Chapter 1 - Water and Sustainable Development


The first chapter of the UN 2020 Water and Climate Change report highlights how climate change affects water and society, what can be done to adapt and mitigate these effects, and who is most vulnerable. If the world does not limit warming to 1.5ºC, there will be increased risk to health, livelihoods, food and energy security, human security, and economic growth. While it is known that access to water will ensure survival, the report also stresses that water – especially water-related diseases – affects a significant number of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals.

Climate change influences water both directly and indirectly, Directly, hydrological systems are affecting water availability, water quality, and extreme events. Indirectly, changes in water demand impact things including but not limited to energy production, food security, and the economy. May societal factors such as population growth, economic development, changing consumption patterns, intensified agricultural production, and expanding cities will increase the demand for water.


One of the most important ways this can be done is by changing how the energy and agriculture sectors work. At the moment, both sectors are starting to shift to low-emissions production, because this mitigates the depletion of freshwater and prevents water pollution. Shifting to a low-emission production system, however, is not enough, because it may lead to increased sediment output, pollutant loadings from heavy rainfall, and other potentially negative effects. Instead, the UN report suggests all stakeholders come together to find “a sustainable balance between social, economic, and ecological needs.”
Before moving on, it is worth breaking down what adaptation and mitigation actually mean. Adaptation  measures moderate the harm from climate change, such as building climate-resilient infrastructure that can withstand environmental degradation, or finding new sources of water like with Dar Si Hmad’s fog harvesting project. The success of adaptation measures are seen in the short-term, which can mean as soon as in 3-5 years or even 10-30 years. Mitigation measures are more concerned with the long-term goals that get at the heart of what causes climate change. Phasing out of a fossil-fuel dependent economy, for example, is one mitigation measure because it would reduce the number of greenhouse gases emitted.
The UN report advocates for nature-based solutions, which are solutions modeled by the earth’s natural processes. Concerning water, many suggest preserving wetlands as flood mitigation, or preserving mangroves to reduce the impact of waves, storms surges, and coastal erosion.


Both adaptation and mitigation measures are necessary to limit the harmful effects climate change will have on water. Adaptation and mitigation in water management is of particular concern to sustainable development and its many dimensions, which makes water management a cross-sectoral challenge. Agriculture and energy are the largest users of water, followed by the industry sector with its rapidly increasing demand for water. The water-related climate risks will impact food, energy, urban, transportation and environmental systems with mutual and conflicting influences. So not only will each sector need to prepare for, but all sectors must work together.


Another main focus of this chapter is who are most vulnerable to the negative water-related effects from climate change. The chapter focuses on developing countries, as well as women and girls, Indigenous populations, children, and the poor.

Although the developed world are the primary emitters of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that exacerbate climate change, the impacts of climate change are manifested in the earth’s tropical zones, which house most of the developing world. The report states that developing countries have a lower ability to alleviate the impacts of climate change and need to develop more knowledge on water-related disaster management, water availability, and water demand and use. This is why Dar Si Hmad does what we do – to alleviate the effects of climate change and provide water for Morocco’s most vulnerable.





Women and girls are another vulnerable population that Dar Si Hmad works with. Women and girls are more at risk of losing their access to water, sanitation, and hygiene, which increases the risk of contracting water-borne diseases such as diarrhea. If sick, girls will have to skip school and my not be able to afford health care. By providing clean water to the rural communities of southwestern Morocco, Dar Si Hmad gives women and girls the time to go to work or school, thus empowering women. On a larger scale, however, there needs to be a continued gendered approach to climate change. The report suggests disaggregating data on climate change in order to understand how climate change impacts men and women and make gender-sensitive policies.


The report also mentions Indigenous populations and youth. Indigenous populations around the world have their own traditional practices for tending to and adapting to changes in the environment, but many are unable to practice their traditions because of governmental limitations. That said, there is much to be learnt from Indigenous practices that may be applied to adaptation and mitigation practices. 










By being born into an era of incredible climate change, today’s kids and youth are also at risk of having unlivable futures. Despite these challenges, kids and youth can work together and influence and participate in efforts that teach, prevent and prepare for climate change. The Paris Agreement refers to this as intergenerational equity.











Finally, the poor in both developed and developing countries are more at risk, especially those with climate-dependent livelihoods. Since economic prosperity is closely tied with poverty alleviation, both must be addressed when managing water. That said, poverty alleviation is dependent on economic prosperity. Climate change affects economic prosperity by increased rainfall and episodes of drought and floods, which can lead to waves of migration or spikes in violence. According to the report, there were 18.8 million people internally displaced from disasters in 135 countries and territories in the year 2017 alone. It is, however, challenging to attribute a specific cause to these social changes in such a globalized world.


All of these vulnerabilities form the concept of climate justice, which stresses that climate change is “an ethical and political issue, as well as an environmental and physical one.” Proponents of climate justice focus on the inequalities that exist within the world and how we got here. 

Written by: Gari De Ramos, Dar Si Hmad former intern


Friday, May 29, 2020

The Capacity Building Program Beneficiaries: InCoDev NGO


InCoDev is a young and outstanding organization to have benefited from our Capacity Building program in 2018. Its name is an abbreviation of Intelligent Community Development. In our latest get-together, we asked Mustapha El Hassnaoui, an assessor in InCoDev, the following questions to learn more about the NGO. Here are his responses:
Mustapha El Hassnaoui, assessor in InCoDev
 When was your NGO founded and what is your main area of activity?
InCoDev was found in 2016 and it focuses on three main points: Social and community development, human rights, and participative democracy, in addition to youth issues and development.
How did you learn about Dar Si Hmad Capacity Building Program for NGOs? And why did you apply for it?
A member of InCoDev sent the organization a link to the program on social media. We immediately decided to apply since our NGO needed empowerment in terms of its management techniques and more training in terms of leadership.
How did your organization benefit from this training?
The members of InCoDev who attended the Capacity Building sessions acquired knowledge and new skills for formulating projects and managing the organization. What each person learned then shared it with the rest of the organization’s members during our periodic meetings. This training enabled us to reformulate a stronger vision and develop a robust plan for InCoDev activities for the years to come.
What are your NGO’s new year’s resolutions for 2020?
The organization’s work-plan for the coming year includes various activities, some of which complement projects already in progress, such as the civil society project and the participatory democracy one, in addition to the trainings we offer to young people, as well as the launching of a new project the organization recently embarked on “The youth of the two banks” which objective is to foster the dialogue about a Mediterranean citizenship that is open to the world, and that also aims to contribute in strengthening the cross-cultural and civic participation of the youth in France, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria.
Do you see any future possible collaborations working with Dar Si Hmad on a project?
InCoDev believes in the importance of networking among organizations to affect more change.  Considering the intersection of our fields of work with those of Dar Si Hmad, we consider that joint work is necessary, especially in youth issues, culture, and social development in the generally poor and areas.

At our get- together, the determination and enthusiasm InCoDev members expressed as they shared their accomplishments and goals inspired all those present, considering the common concern we have to improve the conditions of communities of southwest Morocco. 


Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: Prologue

It is paramount for water resource managers to understand the impacts of climate change when managing water, because current trends project major shifts in the climate and more extreme weather in parts of the world soon. Even if greenhouse gas emissions were lowered to be in line with the pledges on nationally determined contributions under the Paris Agreement, scientists agree the average temperature will rise by at least 1.5ºC above pre-industrial levels after 2030.

Because of climate change, temperature is rising, extreme precipitation events will be more intense and frequent, and heatwaves will be more common and last longer around the world. These risks are unevenly distributed geographically and affect vulnerable communities most in all countries. The report also states that climate change affects water resources through “complex spatiotemporal patterns, feedback effects, and interactions between physical and human processes.” Anthropogenic factors including but not limited to land cover change, water regulation, and water contamination also affect the linkages between climate change and water resources. For example, poorly regulated land cover change (i.e. the loss of natural covers such as forests for usually urban development) can contaminate the surrounding water sources.

Water-related impacts from climate change are already seen today in a variety of ways. Water availability manifests with evaporation from land increasing air temperatures (except in dry regions where there is a lack of water). A lack of water also lessens soil moisture and groundwater, which can lead to soil moisture drought and spells. Additionally, colder mountainous regions are losing snow and ice cover, making the area warmer and altering streamflow. Those at the foot of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, for example, use snow melt from the mountains as a source of water. But if there is less snow in a warming climate, there will also be less water.

Decline in urban water availability
 Water stress and increased water demand are also seen today, with water use growing more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. Water use has increased by a factor of six in the past 100 years around the world, although this statistic does not break down water consumption based on a region’s economic status. Urban areas are most vulnerable, because of population density and increasing urbanization. The report estimates that by 2050, 685 million people living in 570+ cities will lose 10% of their freshwater due to climate change. Many are concerned that decreased water supply may spur migration, spark conflict, and cause countries’ gross domestic products to decrease by 6% in some regions. 

Interactions between water and other major socio-economic sectors affected by climate variability and change
Source: UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report



























Additionally, water-related disasters and extreme events like floods and droughts are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Global floods and rainfalls have been particularly catastrophic, with extreme rainfall events increasing by more than 50% this past decade. The report states that in the 21st century, floods and droughts have caused more than 166,000 deaths, affected 3 billion people, and caused US$700 billion in economic damage. The report also points out that poorer communities in all countries – regardless of the country’s economic status – are more likely to bear the brunt of this displacement and injury.

In order to best adapt to these situations, the report recommends increased investment in water infrastructure by governments, intergovernmental organizations, and other organizations doing relevant work. Global estimates range from US$6.7 trillion by 2030 to $22.6 trillion by 2050. Investments are necessary for new infrastructure, as well as maintenance and improvement of existing infrastructure.

 Several areas are particularly risk-sensitive. The report identifies small island developing countries (SIDs), semi-arid regions, coastal hinterlands, and mountainous areas as areas of concern. SIDs are environmentally and socio-economically vulnerable to disasters and climate change, with little supply and increasing demand due to tourism. Semi-arid regions like northern Africa are already seeing decreased precipitation in already dry areas. Mountainous areas that formerly had glaciers and snowcaps are melting, which changes the ecosystem and hydrological processes in the area. 

All of this said, there are some limitations and challenges to understanding the effects climate change will have on water. The greatest limitation is the uncertainty of projections about climate change and its interactions with the atmosphere, land and oceans, and water resources. 

Written by: Gari De Ramos, Dar Si Hmad former intern

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Dar Si Hmad Highlights of April 2020


In our previous blog article on Dar Si Hmad’s highlights of March 2020, you learnt that we all went under confinement during the couple last weeks of the month. Well, the situation has remained unchanged and we, happily, continue some of the work. Read on through this article to find out how creative we have been with this physical confinement that ensures our common safety!


Please expect a whole new NGO website. Working from home was the ideal time to do some desk-based work and revise our website. So stay connected because you will soon have our updates on www.darsihmad.org where a new institutional video will welcome you. All Dar Si Hmad team is excited about this long due update!

We virtually hosted a new intern who has contributed to making the UN Water and Climate Change chapters accessible to everyone. Dar Si Hmad had her, and this is for the first time ever, working remotely from the United States. Her Name is Ana Margarita “Gari” De Ramos, she first reached out to us during her Journalism and New Media training that she was taking in the School of International Training (SIT), and as part of the program’s assignment, all participants must complete an internship which she did with us from home due to the current global health situation. Gari has contributed with some great pieces of work, you will learn tremendously from her essays; continue being tuned to read them .

The second event, our Green Fridays - Ljamae Azgzaw  did take place but in a novel way, lecturer Lahcen Lquoute, participants and Dar Si Hmad’s staff organized it online. The session was around an amazigh Ode about the precious Argan Tree, the participants were invited to read and interpret. This topic was of great importance because the Argan tree plays a big role in maintaining a balanced ecosystem in the southwest region of Morocco, and also because it serves social and economic purposes too. Having this event held on a virtual platform was advantageous in the sense that it brought people living outside of Agadir to join the discussion, and thus the session benefited a larger public.

Apart from what Dar Si Hmad had within the organization, April 2020 contained many dates that were worthy of commemoration, at least on our social media platforms. The first date was the 7th of April:  World Health Day which indeed concerns us especially with the Coronavirus spread all over the world. The UN Forum of Indigenous people was another event we were excited for, especially that the theme of the year was around the role of indigenous people in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals. The event was postponed considering the current health situation. And for the exact same reason, Dar Si Hmad wasn’t able to celebrate its 10th anniversary on April 20. We are however very grateful for all those of you who actively engaged with us on our birthday’s post by sharing their favorite memories with DSH on their Instagram stories. Indeed, those were cherished moments for us too. And then came Earth Day on the 22nd, a day we normally celebrate, but alas, the circumstances did not allow. And finally came the English Language day on the 23rd, which was an opportunity to shoutout to all the native English language speakers who joined DSH’s language center and excelled in learning one of the Arabic and Tamazight varieties we offer.

Finally, April 2020 was concluded by the arrival of Ramadan which is the opportune time to invite people into considering the ecological awareness as an important component of their spirituality. For that, we have been posting daily quotes that teach and call upon revisiting one’s relationship with nature and the ecosystem. We believe that strengthening one’s ecological spirituality leads to building a healthier and more sustainable world. Thus, Dar Si Hmad will make sure to continue spreading this conviction even after the end of Ramadan.

Now that April is over, Dar Si Hmad is preparing a surprise for you this May. A new big important project that will make another milestone in the organization’s history, but also of that of our partners in the project. Stay tuned for the next session of Ljamae Azgzaw, on the last Friday of this month to learn more about what’s coming!






Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: The executive summary


Water is vital to life. The absence of water will threaten our human rights to water and sanitation. Climate change affects both the quantity and quality of water. These effects manifest as water scarcity, drought, pollution, uncertainty about precipitation, extreme weather and more. Water also effects every aspect of our life and economy, including through human health, food security, energy production, economy growth, ecosystems, and industrial growth.



In the nine-page executive summary of the UN's World Water Development Report 2020: Water and Climate Change, it is made clear that the world and its governments must prioritize creative adaptation and mitigation strategies to ensure peoples’ access to water. The report states that adaptation measures (which moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities from climate change) are more present in water-related sectors, whereas mitigation measures (which are human interventions that reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases) are not yet recognized in the water sector.



It is increasingly necessary to improve and adapt water-related infrastructure. The report also recommends increased investment in unconventional water sources, which include. Some water reuse efforts, desalination plants, the restoration and conservation of wetlands, and fog water collection projects like what we have at Dar Si Hmad.



Food and agriculture also need to be reformed, but face two challenges. First, the industry must adapt its existing models for shifts in the climate – e.g. adjust farming for increased temperatures. Second, the industry must decarbonize through carbon sequestration, emissions reduction through land and water management, or climate-smart agriculture.



Climate change initiatives should also spotlight energy, since two-thirds of the world’s anthropogenic GHGs come from energy production and use. The world must reduce energy demand and increase energy efficiency, and an initial step to doing this is increasing the use of low-carbon renewable energy.



It is also important to consider the interlinkages between climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. Changes in one sector and directly influence the sector’s water demand, which can in turn alter water availability for other sectors. For example, water use requires energy, which leads to water reduction. If our sources of energy change or we need less energy, we would consume less water, produce less GHG, and mitigate climate change.

In order to adapt to and mitigate climate change, we will also need technological innovation that goes beyond our current abilities to measure and react to climate change. The report uses remote sensing technologies as a newer example that can identify large-scale processes not easily seen in traditional observation methods. For example, remote sensing data for crop loss assessment can inform researchers on the effects of flooding in certain regions. All of this, however, needs to be financed. There are two things that must be done for financing climate change’s impacts on water. First, we must recognize the potential of mitigation in water and sanitation projects, and also increase emphasis on financing climate adaptation.



Climate change will also impact the water systems of human settlement. When water is scarce, water availability is typically highest for large urban areas, compared to small urban areas or rural settlements. This highlights the importance of expanding the physical infrastructure for delivering water, while also ensuring it is climate-resilient.



Equally important are disaster risk reduction measures, which include hard (structural) and soft (policy) approaches. These approaches should build climate-resilient infrastructure and strengthen early warning systems and communications services.



Regarding human health, water-related health impacts of climate change include an increase of diseases spread by food, water, or vectors, as well as deaths or injury resulting from extreme weather events.



The report also addresses the regional perspectives and differences when it comes to water and climate change. Specifically, it focuses on sub-Saharan Africa’s water scarcity, Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia’s differing precipitation patterns, Latin America and the Caribbean’s changing water availability which is stressed by urbanization, inequality, and economic development, Asia and the Pacific’s vulnerability do disasters and extreme weather, and Western Asia and North Africa’s water scarcity.


In Western Asia and North Africa, the regions most at risk are the Horn of Africa, the Sahel, and the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The high vulnerability rate is compounded by the lower capacity to adapt to climate change these regions have, as well as socio-economic and political dynamics that may politicize or weaponize water resources.

Climate change will affect water worldwide, so it is important to governments to have effective oversight and coordination, while also collaborating effectively with one another. The report stresses how around the world, marginalized communities like women and the poor are most directly impacted by these negative effects. The report states that efforts moving forward will require an “equitable, participatory, multi-stakeholder approach to water governance in the context of climate change.”

Text and visuals By: Gari De Ramos
                                 Dar Si Hmad intern


Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Capacity Building Program Beneficiaries: The Moroccan NGO for the Protection and Evaluation of the Moroccan Manuscripts


Among all the NGOs that benefited from Dar Si Hmad’s Capacity Building program, The Moroccan NGO for the Protection and Evaluation of the Moroccan Manuscripts is perhaps the most unique in terms of its mission and activities. To learn more, read our Q&A with Lahoucine Laghzal, who represented the organization at our get-together on December 28th.

Lahoucine Laghzal, a member of the Moroccan NGO for the Protection and Evaluation of the Moroccan Manuscripts

When was your NGO founded and what is your main area of activity?
Our NGO was first founded in 2015, but its board members were only elected in 2017.
We wear many hats in our organization: from organizing the inventory of the local Moroccan manuscripts, evaluating them, protecting them and restoring them by fixing them. Once this is done,  we can then submit them to research centers able to further preserve them.

How did you learn about Dar Si Hmad Capacity Building Program for NGOs? And why did you apply for it?
A member of our organization came across a post on the program. And we reached out, applied and were selected.

How did your organization benefit from this training?
We learned how to manage projects and have a stronger structure. We also became convinced of the importance of networking to achieve collective and common goals of preserving our traditional ways of knowledge and culture. 

What are your NGO’s new year’s resolutions for 2020?
Besides the preservation of heritage in general, we would also like to make cultural preservation an important component of development; such a field should have many job opportunities, for instance.

Do you see any future possible collaborations working with Dar Si Hmad on a project?
Indeed, especially since Dar Si Hmad works in development, which means that there is common ground on which to cooperate and unite our efforts in order to achieve goals.

Dar Si Hmad wishes encouragement and support for the very noble mission of the Moroccan NGO for the Protection and Evaluation of the Moroccan Manuscripts.