Dar Si Hmad for Development, Education and Culture is an independent nonprofit organization founded in 2010 promoting local culture and sustainable initiatives through education and the integration of scientific ingenuity in Southwest Morocco. We operate North Africa's largest fog harvesting project, providing villages with access to potable water. Our Water School and Girls' E-Learning Programs build capacity in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Through our Ethnographic Field School, researchers and students engage with local communities in Agadir, Sidi Ifni, and the rural Aït Baamrane region for meaningful cross-cultural exchange.

Wednesday, September 23, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: Chapter 5 - Human Health Impacts related to Water, Sanitation and Climate Change

Climate change has and will continue to have severe water-related impacts on health, especially the poorest and most vulnerable populations that will deepen inequalities within and between countries. Water-related health impacts of climate change include the increased spread of food-, water- and vector-borne diseases, deaths and injury associated with extreme weather events, and undernutrition caused by food shortages, droughts, and floods. Mental health may also be impacted, but it will be harder to quantify. It is projected that climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths yearly by 2030.

The UN 2020 Water and Climate Change report recommends immediate coordinated action that draws on the principles of the ‘One Health’ approach, which considers humans, animals, and ecosystems in its public health interventions. The report stresses the importance of the government and healthcare sector factoring in water and sanitation in healthcare policies. Through the Paris Agreement, the international community has provided mandates for stronger action to protect human health from climate risks. Mitigation efforts that prevent global temperatures from increasing by 2ºC are also important, especially to prevent the spread of diseases that thrive in warmer temperatures. 

Trends in water-related morbidity and mortality

Ensuring access to safe water and sanitation will not only improve quality of life for millions, but also realize the human right to water. To achieve water access for all, there needs to be better management of water resources to prevent the spread of disease, such as making sure bodies of freshwater are not polluted and that the food production sector has adequate access to safe water. 

Around the world, nearly two million preventable deaths occur because of inadequate water and sanitation, with most of these preventable deaths are happening to children under the age of five. Mortality associated with water- and sanitation-related diseases is decreasing, but not quickly enough. The burden of these illnesses and death fall on women and girls, who lose opportunities for work and education due to water collection tasks and have difficulties in menstrual hygiene management. 

Health risks associated with climate change

Climate change is already impacting human health, but it is disproportionately impacting the poorest and most vulnerable populations, which is why climate change is considered to be a poverty multiplier. There are direct, indirect, and mental health water-related impacts from climate change. Direct impacts include physiological effects from exposure to high temperatures, increase in respiratory diseases, and death or injury from extreme weather events. Indirect effects include those caused by ecological changes, such as water insecurity because of drought. Mental health impacts include stress from loss of culture, loss of a way of life, and more. 

Additionally, climate change is undermining the progress made on safe water and sanitation management that is supposed to prevent these water-related health risks from happening. In some regions, cases or diarrhea are expected to increase to 10% by 2030 because of diseases spread by climate change. Existing water and sanitation infrastructure is also at risk of being damaged by extreme weather events like floods, which will worsen water and sanitation quality. 

Increased temperatures will affect water availability and food production, so another major concern is undernutrition, which the report anticipates to be “one of the greatest threats to health resulting from climate change.” The report predicts that 540-590 million people, particularly children and the elderly, will be undernourished if global temperatures warm by 2ºC. 

Water supply and response options

Adapting water and sanitation infrastructure so they make room for resilience is of the utmost importance. The following six components of health systems should be considered when adapting infrastructure: policy and policy and governance, financing, service delivery, technologies and infrastructure, workforce, and information systems. Other measures including data collection, disaster response and rehabilitation, and behavior change programs can also be effective in adapting to climate change. 

Just as the water and sanitation sector should take health into account, the health sector should take water and sanitation into account. Specifically, the healthcare sector should ensure that water- and sanitation-related climate risks are factored into their healthcare policies. 

Written by: Gari De Ramos, DSH former intern

Friday, September 4, 2020

Dar Si Hmad Highlights of August 2020


Of all specialties, Education has always been the focus of Dar Si Hmad throughout its existence, August 2020 being no exception. From searching for funds to run future educational programs, to designing children-and-youth empowerment programs, and making one of our major educational micro-projects, a lot has happened during this month despite Corona constraints. Read through this article that features the highlights of Dar Si Hmad in August 2020!  

Following the online preparation for the third edition of the Summer Tech Camp and the celebration of Eid Al Adha in exceptional conditions, this year’s program of the camp also had to be readjusted to the context in terms of the content and the organization of the venue. This year’s sessions tackled specific needs of the beneficiaries and had us put special emphasis on the online learning methods that will indeed serve them in the upcoming school year. As for the organizational side of the camp days, Dar Si Hmad did its best to ensure the respect of all the sanitary measures that will prevent the participants in the camp and our staff too from being attained by coronavirus. More than 14 days have passed since the end of this year’s Summer Tech Camp, and no case of contamination with the virus has been declared from any participant in the program. Above all, this year’s edition marked a great success for our organization. We received very positive feedback from the beneficiaries and their families, and our internal evaluation of the program was also gratifying, for all the stress and obstacles that we were able to overcome fluidly.

Simultaneously, Dar Si Hmad, in the company of the members of FIKR NGO in Sidi Ifni, have been preparing the logistics and administrative procedures to launch school support courses for the children of the villages that benefit from our fog harvesting project. Our initiative could not go ahead as planned, but we do not give up as we are currently thinking of innovative methods that can help rural students catch up with their urban-based peers who have access to the internet that fairly facilitates receiving school content. In this regard, we also invite you to think and share with us your project proposal that can be implemented in the actual context of the communities we serve, you could also contribute.

In addition to our youth and children empowerment programs in the planning phase, our work on the agroecological project Afous Ghissiki is progressing and is promisingly growing, especially with the amazing job that Mustapha, the head coordinator of the program, has been doing since his recruitment. Our continued research on the biological control of the mealybug ( Dactylium Opuntiae) in the region of Aït Baamrane is also still on. And today we are looking into adapting the new research coming out of our University in Agadir to counter this bug with a biological predator to stop this invasive species that  threatens the source of livelihood of the local economy.

And as always, the month ends with our Green Friday which has hosted this time Mr. Tom Bebien, a recycling coordinator with Plastic Odyssey; the latter being a world expedition that fights plastic pollution. If you missed our live video with him, don’t worry, we have it recorded for you as an IGTV. And if you would like to see new and exciting forms of Ljamae Azgzaw… stay tuned!

Friday, August 28, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: Chapter 4 - Water related extremes and risk management


The UN 2020 Water and Climate Change report identifies several water-related effects of climate change, including heat waves, unprecedented rainfalls, and thunderstorms and storm surges from cyclones, typhoons, or hurricanes. These disasters can lead to political and socio-economic instabilities that then degrade peoples’ livelihoods. Human society is increasingly vulnerable to water-related disasters. The report suggests that the best way to address this is through climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. 

The report identifies two types of measures: “hard” and “soft” for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Hard measures involve physical infrastructure and the environment, whereas soft measures deal with the ability of humans to plan ahead. Hard and soft measures should be complementary. For example, to diversify crops (a hard measure), countries need policy environments (a soft measure) that will make crop diversification possible. 

The report focuses on climate-proof infrastructure and nature-based solutions identified as hard measures. To create climate-proof infrastructure, the report recommends risk assessments that factor in the frequency and intensity of the climate hazard, the extent to which humans are exposed to the climate hazard, and the vulnerability of what is at risk. The report highlights two types of risk assessments: bottom-up, which investigates a community’s exposure and current vulnerability, and top-down, which relies on climate modelling and predictions. Climate-proof infrastructure should then be based on these risk-assessments.

Nature-based solutions, which are inspired and supported existing ecological processes to manage water, are another hard measure for which the report advocates. Specifically, the report talks about ecosystem-based adaptation, which uses biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of the overall adaptation strategy. 

Recommended soft measures include forecasting and early warning systems, flood and drought insurance, urban planning, and contingency planning. All of these soft measures can prepare an informed public and government, which can allow people to plan ahead and make informed decisions in light of an impending water-related disaster.

The report also advocates for integrating disaster risk reduction in different sectoral policies and plans as a form of mitigation. This will require stakeholders to come together and share responsibilities in disaster risk reduction and building their stakeholder capacity to prepare for emergencies. Decision-making should include gendered considerations, since women are more at risk from water-related disasters. Unity of stakeholders is particularly important regarding water-related disasters or water sources that cross-country borders. 

Finally, the report sees opportunities in artificial intelligence, ‘big data,’ sophisticated climate and hydrological models, advanced remote sensing technologies, NBS, and social media for strengthening global climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction efforts. To maximize the benefits of these opportunities, policy makers and practitioners must come together and fill in the gap between scientific knowledge and action. 

Written by: Gari De Ramos, DSH former intern

Saturday, August 22, 2020

An overview on the Summer Tech Camp 2020

Saturday 15th August 2020 wrapped up ten days of the third edition of the Summer Tech camp, organized by Dar Si Hmad for Development, Education and Culture. 

The camp offered an amazing learning opportunity for young unprivileged girls in Middle school or entering High School, to initiate them in technology and a better, safer use of the internet.  Each day the camp ran from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm with a communal breakfast and the launching of the day with an ice breaker activity for fully energized sessions.

The camp curriculum is inspired from the last editions of the Summer Tech Camp, Sifna Teknologia, with few updates based on this year’s beneficiaries’ needs. As its name indicates, the Summer Tech Camp’s main topic is "Technology," yet it features sessions related to critical thinking, to personal discovery, self awareness and to soft skills such as public speaking or team work that the girls will inevitably need both in their personal and professional lives.

The first day of the camp was all about introductions: the camp and Dar Si Hmad. We then played many games to discover more about the girls and build a solid network. We were impressed by the variety of talents that made up the program and the different skills the girls had:  some could sing beautifully, some played football (a predominantly male sport), some were iron ball players, some were active Turkish language learner, many were K-POP fans, and all loved gaming  and are passionate young women. 

Then, we established together the group rules, we call it our constitution, in order to guarantee a healthy, comfortable and enjoyable learning experience for everyone. 

After lunch we introduced the girls to the technical world of computers and the ABCs of web surfing. The girls were very interested in the new information and facilities they discovered, especially that they knew the internet through phones and many of them rarely use a computer. To apply what they have been taught, the girls were asked to do Webquests on different topics and share their results with their peers.

On the 2nd day, the girls watched a TED Talk video about the “Hole in the wall” experiment. Each one expressed her opinion about the experiment and how we can relate to it as technology knowledge seekers. Next, we talked about the difference between software and hardware. We practiced installing Mozilla Firefox and learned more about the facilities extensions we could bring to the web browser we used. ALEXA was one of the extension examples we focused on especially that it was needed for the workshop on sources of credible information, on detecting fake news, on avoiding illegal downloadings and plagiarism. The 2nd day was also the occasion for girls who do not have an email address to create one and write their first email. As new High-Schoolers expected to give presentations, we initiated them into powerpoint and Google slides use.

Day 3  started with an open discussion about the stereotypes girls have about the technology world. Followed by two Ted Talks about computer science and women in technology; the girls found more arguments to better express themselves about the topic. In the following session, the girls understood the principle of Wikipedia, its accuracy and practice advanced search Google offers.

“Video games” was an interesting session especially for those who love gaming, and they were surprised to discover the other side of video games through gender representation in video games. Girls realized how important it is to be aware of everything they consume from the internet. We then suggested some instructive games and clarified that learning can happen through fun games.

Given the current situation of the pandemic and the schools’ lockdown, we figured out that the girls will need a session related to online learning and the possible platforms that can be used for this end. The girls mentioned that they only used Whatsapp groups to study and did not know there were other platforms that would offer them a better virtual learning experience; that is when we introduced them to different platforms such as Zoom and Teams, and we eventually had a class simulation on Google meet. The girls learned how to launch a virtual class themselves and invite their friends.

To clarify the importance of self awareness we tackled on Day 3, the program of day 4 started with a session on critical thinking, its definition, steps and effective tools to shift one’s way of thinking. After a practice in which girls had to think and use their mental abilities, they had a workshop on DIYs and had free time to find a DIY idea and determine the materials they will need. In the afternoon, the girls had a workshop on digital photography that focused on practical techniques/criteria to take good pictures and edit them online in a way that would  guarantee an effective story telling. 

Day 5, we could not have the planned visit to the Berber Museum, closed because of the pandemic. We started the day with a discussion on museums, their importance and the girls' experiences in museums. We then introduced them to the platforms that can allow them to visit far away museums without moving from their chairs or buying a ticket. After that, we had a workshop on videography. We started the workshop by projecting the videos Khadija Amahal had made as a summary of the previous days of the camp. The girls were excited for the tips and the techniques of videography that would allow them to make such videos themselves.

At the end of the workshop we asked the girls to practice what they learned so far and make videos on their own about any topic they want. We gave them video ideas to guide their thinking; an interview, a set of pictures telling a story with a sound, voiceover or a vlog of a day in the camp.

Day 6 was a pause from the serious workshops and an opportunity for the girls to have fun through playing a variety of games that needed effective team work. The afternoon was solely dedicated to working on the DIY projects and presenting them in front of their peers.

Day 7 and back to serious work! The first thing we think about when we hear technology is the weird writing that we call a code, so it was important to include a session on coding and binary alphabet. Coding might seem very complicated yet if explained through games it becomes fun and easy to understand. In the afternoon the girls were introduced to AI artificial intelligence and had an open discussion about its uses in our daily life, its future and limits.

Day 8 was a personal discovery journey. Girls enjoyed taking personality tests and found out more about their strong points. The afternoon was a session on possible schools and majors the girls can pursue. Also, the girls were very excited for the exchange programs session especially that the facilitator Khadija told them previously that she had visited many countries through exchange programs.

Day 9 the girls had to work on their final projects (presentations and videos) so as to share them within the afternoon. Before the presentations we included a session on Public Speaking so that they have an idea about the way they should present their project. The girls’ final projects incredibly rewarded our efforts. Upon completion of the training, the participants seemed to take our feedback into consideration.

On day 10 participants showed their satisfaction about the training and they expressed wishes to take part in future programs organized by Dar Si Hmad.

Written by: Hanane Ben Belaid, STC assistant and facilitator

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Dar Si Hmad Highlights of July 2020


Dar Si Hmad has resumed its normal work rhythm in just a month following the lockdown. Read through the article to learn about our highlights from July 2020.

Dar Si Hmad office hosted from the 6th to the 10th of July our friend and partner Surfrider Maroc, and provided them with a venue for their yearly training for the Beach Guardians as part of the 9th edition of their summer operation J’aime ma plage, a program designed to raise public awareness of coastal environment. This operation has been underway for the last 4 weeks now in Taghazout and Agadir, the young Guardians of the beach have shown  great commitment to this cause.

During the same week, Dar Si Hmad Instagram account reached 1K followers, and today we have over 1020 followers to whom we are very thankful for engagement and support. And as an  NGO active in disseminating educational and environmental messages both in the field and virtually, we commit to continue sharing informative and instructional content with our readers and supporters.

July 2020 also marks our meeting for strategic planning and  all of Dar Si Hmad’s team came together. The front-line employees in Aït Baamrane, Houssine Soussan and Mohamad Hamou Ali with all of Agadir staff joined in the Centre Culturel Si Hmad Derhem in Sidi Ifni. Our heated exchanges concerning the current health situation and the limitations it has imposed on us  led us to think about different project ideas and how to design them so that we keep benefitting the communities in need, whilst respecting the sanitary measures.

Next DSH completed a sociological survey carried out in the village of Taloust in preparation for its future connection to the fog-water. The survey was successfully completed, and for that we would like to thank all the interviewers who participated in it, as we salute the women of Aït Baamrane for their sincerity and their generous contribution to this work.

In the midst of July, our executive director, Dr. Jamila Bargach was invited to participate in a live panel organized by Enactus club of Morocco as part of their Sustainable Innovation Fest. Our ED contributed to the discussion of entrepreneurship in sustainably managing the natural resources. We invite you to have a look at her rich exchange of the panel, check the Enactus Morocco Facebook page.

Another big highlight of this July 2020 was our Ljamae Azgzaw and the Zero-waste concept. Our office manager, Samira Arjdal, who is a proud “consom’actrice” taught our followers on Instagram about her lifestyle and her daily eco-responsable choices. She explained how there are environmental and moral benefits to lessening one’s production of waste, and at the end of the live session she illustrated about one such product, home-made toothpaste tutorial. The live video was recorded as an IGTV in Dar Si Hmad’s account, so go and give it a look.

Finally, July 2020 was concluded with the preparations for the Summer Tech Camp. Read our previous blog article to learn more about how this initial phase of the camp went, and follow us on the social media to be notified about our upcoming article that will give you more insights about the course and the content of this third edition.

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

A taste of the 3rd edition of the Summer Tech Camp

Khadija Amahal in Sidi Ifni
          I strongly believe in the importance of quality education in raising responsible future generations who will continue making change in their environment and promoting positive values. Girls’ education is one of the topics that interest me, and one of the fields I truly enjoy working on. I have many reasons for liking this field; I myself had to find my own path to access a good quality education. Therefore contributing to building a good environment for girls to learn and grow is something that warms my heart. I was very happy to receive an invitation from Dar Si Hmad’s office manager to be a member of the organizing committee of the third edition of the girls’ summer tech camp. This programme is a 10 days long camp where girls from middle school are exposed to information and skills about the field of technology. Themes of the summer camp include: ICT, critical thinking, digital literacy, DIY, photography, videography and many others. One of the things I truly love about this activity is the fact that it is learner cantered. I have a background academic training in teaching, therefore, I know how important it is for the student to have a sense of independence in class and to be involved in the learning making rather than being a passive participant that is spoon fed without having room for thinking, analysing and evaluating their acquired knowledge.

          The first meeting for preparation took place on Tuesday, July 21st, at DSH office. That was one of the very few times when I was not stressed about meeting a group with whom I will be working in the future. I usually get stressed about making a positive impression, creating a bound with the team and not being interpreted wrongly for something I say. I already had the opportunity to meet some of the association’s staff and I enjoyed their company to the extent that I felt at home. Meeting Madame Jamila was one of the highlights of the day. In the Moroccan context, it is likely to be nervous in the presence of an executive director, but that was not the case with this great minded lady. She made sure to welcome me in person and tell us goodbye before she left. These details matter, because in order to give your best at work, studies, and relationships, an intrinsic motivation is valuable, and one way to be intrinsically motivated is to be treated with respect and appreciation for your efforts. With the leadership of Salwa ‘DSH’s communication officer’; Hanane ‘one of the camp’s facilitators’ and I had a detailed idea of the camp, its previous editions and the tasks we are expected to deliver. The conversation was smooth and very comprehensive. By the end of the meeting, we agreed on the future steps to implement in order to be well prepared for the camp and make sure that girls live a great experience they can recall in years, just like the girls and I still remember the great experience of being RISE participants “a program implemented by DSH that aims to provide the participants with the 21 century skills using non formal education tools’.

          Preparing for the camp from home was an alternative we agreed on to assure social distancing especially during the days prior to Eid celebration that witness crowded means of transportation and streets, as a precaution measure. I honestly enjoyed working with my fellow facilitators; we divided the tasks and each one took charge of her preferred sections. We had access to a rich data base of information on previous editions of the camp which really facilitated the task for me. I will give you a brief overview of the section I took charge of; some of it is focused on critical thinking which is highly important in an era where girls are exposed to unlimited loads of information which is not always true. I focused on providing means to build this capacity and tools to practice it as often as possible. My talented friend Hanane worked on designing a session on photography and videography which are great tools for storytelling and building an artistic sense through which girls can see the world from different perspectives. Salwa on the other hand has helped us a lot by providing support in its different forms, clarifying all aspects of the camp based on her previous experience and assuring everything is clear and in order.

          I am really excited to meet the participants and contribute as much as I can in implementing the activities of the camp in the best possible ways. I am also eager to closely work with talented, open minded and supportive community whom I had the immense pleasure to get to know earlier this month. Make sure you keep an eye on the blog; more details about the camp are coming soon.

Written by: Khadija Amahal, STC assistant

Monday, July 27, 2020

The UN 2020 Water & Climate Change report summary: Chapter 3 - Water Availability, Infrastructure, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 of the UN 2020 Water and Climate change report dives deeply into water availability, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Climate change impacts many elements of water management, including water storage, supply, and sanitation.

Impacts on water resources and infrastructure
It is important to consider how climate change will affect water scarcity , ecosystem degradation, and water pollution. Water scarcity can be categorized into economic water scarcity and physical scarcity. Economic water scarcity is caused by a lack of water infrastructure, which is typically seen in Africa and South Asia. The only way to alleviate economic water scarcity  is to build water climate-resilient infrastructure that provides water to people. Physical scarcity, on the other hand, is caused by excessive water withdrawals for developed infrastructure causes. Physical scarcity can be seen in places including but not limited to North Africa, Southern Africa, the Middle East, Northern China, Australia. These places with depleted water sources are at risk of seeing major biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, which reduces the ecosystem's resilience and makes communities more vulnerable to climate change. Other factors can add to water infrastructure’s vulnerability to climate change, including the infrastructure’s age, quality, and location relative to flood-prone low-lying cities.

Two major water infrastructures that need to be assessed are dams and sanitation and hygiene infrastructure. Dams are costly, can have negative environmental and social impacts, and can be destroyed or weakened by the effects of climate change. Many existing dams in places like the United States are decommissioned, so it is vital that future dams like those being built in Morocco are climate-resilient. Sanitation, and hygiene infrastructure are at risk of facing increased damage from climate change. Flooding sewer pumping stations, for example, can spread faces and associated viruses, causing severe health-hazards for the population. Although this is not a pretty example, it is emblematic of the need for climate-resilient infrastructure.

Options to enhance water security under a changing climate
In order to secure our water in a changing climate, we need to innovate conventional water infrastructure so that it factors in drought resistance, flood control, regional development and other needs conjunctively and yet provide public goods (navigation, river basin management, maintaining ‘ecological’ river flows, etc.), and recognizes the cross-sectoral and multi-purpose nature of water. 

The report highly recommends blending nature-based solutions with conventional infrastructure, and strengthening existing water, sanitation, and hygiene infrastructure. Water, sanitation, and hygiene infrastructure development should focus on six categories: technologies and infrastructure, financing, policy and governance, workforce, information systems, and service delivery. The report also stresses the development of groundwater collection infrastructure and the need to reassess the capacity of aquifers. 

The report also states that it is increasingly necessary to consider unconventional water sources to ensure accessibility to water. All strategies must be evaluated for their environmental impacts and associated human health risks.

Safe water reuse/reclaimed water: Treating used water for new use is a way to save water. This is mostly done in arid and semi-arid regions that use treated wastewater for irrigation. In Namibia, the city of Windhoek has used this strategy for over 50 years. There is growing potential for safe water reuse in Europe, particularly in Portugal and Spain. 

Sea water and brackish water desalination: Desalination turns saltwater into freshwater and is mostly present in the Middle East and North Africa. Although the source of seawater is unlimited and renewable energy sources are becoming cheaper, the desalination process does consume a lot of energy. 

Atmospheric moisture harvesting: Cloud seeding or fog water collection like Dar Si Hmad’s works in areas where fog is abundant. Because of the limited reach of fog, this works best at the local level and is a low-cost and low-maintenance approach.

Offshore aquifers: According to the report, 0.5 million km3 of fresh/brackish water exists in offshore aquifers located below shallow (<500 m) ocean water within 100 km of the shoreline. The report spends little time talking about offshore aquifers because it points out that offshore groundwater is not the solution to water scarcity, although it can be weighed with alternatives. 

Physical transportation of freshwater by the sea: This strategy involves shipping freshwater from places like the Amazon, or icebergs or ‘shaved ice’ from icebergs, around the world to places in need. This was considered for Cape Town South Africa in 2017-2018, when the city almost ran out of water in a severe drought. This strategy only exists as a concept, however, because it is costly, requires a large fleet, and has large potential losses. 

Mitigation options for water resources management
Mitigation measures should also be implemented because water management produces 3-7% of the world’s greenhouse gasses, especially from energy used to power systems and the biochemical processes involved in water and wastewater treatment. 80-90% of wastewater in developing countries, however, is not collected. Collecting wastewater may be a positive step in decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from water management.

Electricity use is another big greenhouse gas emitter for water management systems. One way to make energy use more efficient is to convert the organic matter from wastewater into energy for the water management system.

Finally, wetlands and peatlands can be conserved and sustained because they accommodate the largest carbon stocks and store twice as much carbon as forests. Unfortunately, many wetlands and peatlands are poorly managed and drained for agricultural purposes, which releases more carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air.

Written by: Gari DeRamos, Dar Si Hmad former intern